The link can be divided into two distinct processes: horizontal binding and vertical binding: this agreement of engagement can lead to competition problems, because the alternative sellers of the second object – the linked product – may be discouraged by competition, because buyers are forced to buy a product by the first seller, because the buyer may need the product in which the seller has market power (the first product). This is the only way for buyers to get the second item – by also buying the first product from the seller. An agreement in which the seller conditions the sale of a product (the „binding“ product) to the buyer`s consent to the purchase of a separate product (the „linked“ product) by the seller. Alternatively, it is also considered a liaison agreement if the seller conditions the sale of the product related to the buyer`s agreement not to buy the product related to another seller. See Eastman Kodak v. Image Technical Services, Inc., 504 U.S. 541 (1992). „Tying Agreement.“ Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tying%20agreement. Access 27 Nov 2020. At least four regulators, including the Federal Reserve Board, oversee the activities of banks, their holding companies and other associated deposit-taking institutions.
While each type of deposit-making institution has a „primary regulatory authority,“ the country`s „double bank“ system allows simultaneous jurisdiction between the various regulatory authorities. With respect to anti-loyalty provisions, the Fed plays a leading role in other financial institution regulators, reflecting the fact that it was considered the least biased (in favour of banks) of regulatory agencies when Section 106 was adopted.  In a typical coupling agreement, a company sells a product or service to a buyer that is explicitly or implicitly related to the purchase of another product or service from the same seller. For example, a company may set up a walled garden or a closed platform that sells a smart device and can only be purchased through the smart device. In the past, both Microsoft and Apple have been accused of entering into agreements. Then the court will have to decide whether this is the particular nature of the commitment agreement that should be considered illegal – the issue of liability. While it will be rare to find insurances that have pro-competitive effects, there are three categories of coupling agreements that are still illegal (which is unreasonable in itself), those that are illegal only after a common-sense investigation, and those that, according to one of the two approaches, are not illegal. Then the crazy cover continues. Commitment agreements are analyzed under two different antitrust statutes – Section 1 of the Sherman Act and Section 3 of the Clayton Act. For unexplained reasons, the Supreme Court has created different standards depending on the status used to enforce the rule itself; Today, however, there are serious doubts as to whether there are still two tests or one.
Although the status and standards are known, recent cases have shown a remarkable degree of diversity and confusion in the application of the standard to the facts in question. Finally, the Court also recognized occasional defences against dummies that would be covered by the so-called per sound rule.